Dr. 0. Wilburn Swaim, Th.D.

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Fairbairn's: "...a certain pattern or exemplar exhibited in the position and character of some individuals, to which others may or should be conformed"   (Fairbairn, Patrick. THE TYPOLOGY OF SCRIPTURES. Baker Book House, 1900, p. 42).

Jones's: "A type is a divinely purposed prefiguration of a corresponding reality"   (Jones, Richard. PRECIOUS TRUTHS IN THE O.T. TYPES notes, n.d.,  p. 1).

Stevens's: "A type, in its scriptural usage, is a person, thing, event, or institution in the Old Testament that foreshadows and anticipates a fuller revelation of the truth that appears later in the New Testament"
(Stevens, Charles H. THE WILDERNESS JOURNEY. Scripture Truth, n.d., p.11).

Swaim's:  An entity in the Old Testament, on Biblical authority, prophetically portraying elements of its corresponding New Testament fulfillment."


The Greek, "tupos" is used eighteen times in seventeen verses, from John through II Peter.

The KJV translates it with a variety of English words, as: (emphases mine to indicate word translating the Greek word)

(John 20:25)  "The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."

"Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon."  (Acts 7:43)

"Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come."  (Romans 5:14 KJV)

"Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted."  (1 Corinthians 10:6)

"Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come."  (1 Corinthians 10:11)

"Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern showed to thee in the mount."  (Hebrews 8:5)

Hebrews 8:5 gives good insight into the intent of the word's usage. But 1 Corinthians 10:11 is the real authority for the doctrine of typology, particularly when the word "types" is substituted for "ensamples".

If the word "all" is to be taken literally, then is there ground for considering every Old Testament entity a type? Consider "all" as used in Matthew 2:3, 16 and 3:5. Or, is it "all" in the context of the things that are specifically mentioned in 1 Corinthians 6:1-10?

Some do say that only things specifically called types in the New Testament may be considered as true types. Other things may only be considered pictures, shadows, etc.

The contrast and comparison in 1 Corinthians 15:45, "And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit", is without doubt a true Biblical example of type and anti-type.

Doctrine should not be built on typology, but true types and/or pictures will never contradict true doctrine, but rather will help establish it.

Every detail will not necessarily fit in the development of the type. Often, differences (contrasts) in detail will also demonstrate the typical character.


Egypt* The World (Exodus 1-14)

Pharoah* Satan (Exodus 5:1)

Bondage    Sin (Exodus 1:14)

Passover    Lamb  Christ crucified (Exodus 12 with 1 Corinthians 5:7)

Red Sea    Redemption (Exodus 14; with 1 Corinthians 10)

Manna    Christ for growth to maturity (Exodus 16 with John 6)

Rock    Christ smitten (Exodus 17:6 with 1 Corinthians 10:4) and spoken to (Numbers 20:8 w Psalms 78:15)

Amalek*    Fleshly Warfare (Exodus 17)

Sinai    Condemnation of fleshly living (Exodus 20)

Kadesh-Barnea**    Place of decision for or against surrender (Numbers 14)

Wilderness    Judgment on the flesh (Numbers 15)

Jordan    Victory over the flesh (Joshua 3,4)

Gilgal    Place of self judgment (Joshua 5)

Canaan    Place of victory; spiritual maturity (Joshua 5:7-10)

Anakim    Continuing hinderance to victorious living (Joshua 11; note their defeat in 14:15, followed by rest)

Babylon    Apostasy and worldliness

Old Corn***    aged food for the mature believer (Joshua 5:11,12)

Unseen Captain    Lordship of Christ--only in Canaan (Joshua 5:13-15). The battle of the world and the flesh is behind; now it is Satan.

Jericho    Defeat of the world (Joshua 6; It fell by faith, 1 John 5:4; Hebrews 11:30).

Gibeonites    Deceitfulness of Satan (Joshua 9,10). Israel's disobedience to the Word caused it (Joshua 9:14)

Land divided    Our inheritance received (Joshua 13)

Cities of Refuge    Christ our Refuge (Exodus 21:13; Joshua 20; Numbers 35:6; Deuteronomy 4:41-43).

* The three enemies of the Christian, i.e. the world, Satan, the flesh (1 John 2:15-17).

**Israel, laboring under the law and led by Moses, the Lawgiver, could not enter the land. Moses disobeyed and disqualified himself. The law could make nothing perfect (Heb 7:19), but the better hope (Christ, by grace; Joshua is "Je hoshua," "Jehovah-Saviour") brought the new generation into the promised land. Only Christ can deliver from sin's bondage and bring us into the place of spiritual victory.

***Egypt's food is listed in Numbers 11:5 with 1 Corinthians 2:14; the wilderness's food is the manna (Exodus 16:14-35--Notice what all is done to it to compromise it, with 1 Pt 2:2,3; Canaan's food is the old corn--tough chewing and digesting, for mature believers (Joshua 5:11 with 1 Corinthians 3:2 and Hebrews 5:14-6:1).




Deuteronomy 1:1-8


Read Heb 5:11-6:3.  Consider recruit who flunks and repeats basic training.  He can graduate and meet the enemy as a dog soldier, or go to AIT and meet enemy as a leader.

I.     Egypt, Escape from the World.

A. Bondage to Satan (Exodus 1:13-16)

1. Servitude (13)

2. Bitterness (14)

3. Hardship (14)

4. Death (15, 16)

B. Deliverance from sin.
Redemption (Exodus 12-14)

1. By Sacrifice (12:6)

2. By Blood (12:23)

3. By Judgment(12:29)

4. By Grace (14:13,14,30)

II.    Wilderness, Encroachment of the Flesh.

A. The Assignment:
A two year course designed to teach the truth of Galatians 5:16-25. Typified by:

1. Redemption's Song (Exodus 15) The Joy of Christ.

2. Marah (Exodus 15:22) The Sweetness of the Cross.

3. 12 Wells/70 Palms (15:27) The Sufficiency of Christ.

4. Manna/Flesh; Water from the Rock (16:4; 17:6)

5. The Supply of Christ.

6. Moses, Aaron, Hur (17:8-16) The Supplication of Christ.

7. Ten Commandments (20:1-17) The Standards of Christ.

8. Tabernacle & Rituals (25-31:11) The Substitutionary Sacrifce of Christ.

9. Sabbath Day (Exodus 31:12-18) The Perfect Rest of Christ.

10. Offerings & Feasts (Leviticus) The True Worship of Christ.

11. Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 14:9) The Victory of Christ.

B. The Alternative (Numbers 14:1-35).

1. Mature, and Go in (v. 7,8)

2. Rebel, and Miss out (10-35)
Obey, or pay; take it, or lose it; choose, or lose.

III.   Canaan, Engagement of Satan.
Victory available through (The):

A. Grace of God (Joshua 1:3-5)

B. Word of God (Joshua 1:7-9) note 5:12

C. Submission to Christ (Joshua 1:17; 5:13-15)

D. Sanctified Life (Joshua 3:5)

E. Walk of Faith (Joshua 3:14-17)

F. Experience of Victory (Joshua 6)